On September 28, a 4-year-old Quarter Horse gelding in Riverside County, California, was confirmed positive for equine infectious anemia (EIA). The gelding was quarantined and later euthanized at his home premises, where he was the only equine present.
The horse had a brief career in sanctioned racing. Epidemiological investigation led to the quarantine of 25 exposed horses and three foals at a second premises in Riverside County. Two of the 24 horses tested positive for EIA and were euthanized. The two positive horses were 4-year-old Quarter Horses, and one also tested positive for equine piroplasmosis. The remaining 23 horses and two foals will remain quarantined until their 60-day retest.
EDCC Health Watch is an Equine Network marketing program that utilizes information from the Equine Disease Communication Center (EDCC) to create and disseminate verified equine disease reports. The EDCC is an independent nonprofit organization that is supported by industry donations in order to provide open access to infectious disease information.
Equine infectious anemia is a viral disease that attacks horses’ immune systems. The virus is transmitted through the exchange of body fluids from an infected to an uninfected animal, often by blood-feeding insects such as horseflies. It can also be transmitted through the use of blood-contaminated instruments or needles.
A Coggins test screens horses’ blood for antibodies that are indicative of the presence of the EIA virus. Most U.S. states require horses to have proof of a negative Coggins test to travel across state lines.
Once an animal is infected with EIA, it is infected for life and can be a reservoir for the spread of disease. Not all horses show signs of disease, but those that do can exhibit:
- Progressive body condition loss;
- Muscle weakness;
- Poor stamina;
- Depression; and
EIA has no vaccine and no cure. A horse diagnosed with the disease dies, is euthanized, or must be placed under extremely strict quarantine conditions (at least 200 yards away from unaffected equids) for the rest of his life.